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Cell No. : Cell Name
RCB0704 : WI-38  update : 2023/06/30
CommentThe most famous normal human fibroblast. Obtained directly from L. Hayflick.
Comment from the depositor
Terms and conditionsNo restriction, but the user needs depositor's approval to use for any commercial purpose.
Order Form Order Form(C-0005.pdf)   MTA(C-0007.pdf)   MTA(C-0007p.pdf)  
Regarding MTA between user institutions and RIKEN BRC, there are two kinds of MTA, not-for-profit academic purpose (C-XXXX) and for-profit research purpose (C-XXXXp) , depending on the sort of user institutions and the purposes of use. Please use an appropriate MTA(to see). In relation to commercial use and use for patent filing, first of all Please contact RIKEN BRC (
Basic information Depositor Hayflick, Leonard
Originator Hayflick, Leonard
Year of deposit 1991
Animal _human < Mammals
Genus Homo
Species sapiens
Gender Female
Age at sampling 3 months gestation
Tissue embryo/fetus, lung
Classification normal
History overseas
Lifespan finite
Morphology fibroblast-like
Cellosaurus(Expasy) CVCL_0579
deposit info
lot info
Medium Medium List
Culture type Adherent cells
Culture medium MEM + 10% FBS
Antibiotics Free
Passage method 0.25% Trypsin
Culture information Passage ratio 1 : 4 split
SC frequency Subculture : 1-2 times/week, Medium Renewal : 2 times/week
Temperature 37 ℃
CO2 concentration 5 %
Freeze medium Medium + 10% DMSO
Freezing method Slow freezing
Mycoplasma (-)
Virus (HIV) (-)
Isozyme LD, NP
Chromosome mode 45-92(50) : 45(4),46(44),92(2)
STR(human) OK
deposit info
lot info
Reference information Reference 20
User's Publication 18

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4807  Olshansky SJ1, Hayflick L2.  The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity.  AIMS Public Health  2017  4(2):127-138  PubMed ID: 29546209   DOI: 10.3934/publichealth.2017.2.127
4808  Meredith Wadman  Medical research: cell division  Nature  2013  2013-06-27  PubMed ID: 23803825   DOI: 10.1038/498422a
4806  Hayflick L.  Paying for tissue: the case of WI-38.  Science  2012  37(6100):1292  PubMed ID: 22984048   DOI: 10.1126/science.337.6100.1292-a
4805  Hayflick L.  A novel technique for transforming the theft of mortal human cells into praiseworthy federal policy.  Exp Gerontol  1998  33(1-2):191-207  PubMed ID: 9467730   DOI: 10.1016/s0531-5565(97)00115-0
4804  Hayflick L.  Antecedents of cell aging research.  Exp Gerontol  1989  24(5-6):355-65  PubMed ID: 2698813   DOI: 10.1016/0531-5565(89)90043-0
4803  Hayflick L.  The cell biology of aging.  Clin Geriatr Med  1985  1(1):15-27  PubMed ID: 3913498  
4802  Matsumura T, Pfendt EA, Zerrudo Z, Hayflick L.  Senescent human diploid cells (WI-38). Attempted induction of proliferation by infection with SV40 and by fusion with irradiated continuous cell lines.  Exp Cell Res  1980  125(2):453-7  PubMed ID: 6243571   DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(80)90139-1
4800  Matsumura T, Pfendt EA, Hayflick L.  DNA synthesis in the human diploid cell strain WI-38 during in vitro aging: an autoradiography study.  J Gerontol  1979  34(3):323-7  PubMed ID: 429764   DOI: 10.1093/geronj/34.3.323
4801  Matsumura T, Zerrudo Z, Hayflick L.  Senescent human diploid cells in culture: survival, DNA synthesis and morphology.  J Gerontol  1979  34(3):328-34  PubMed ID: 429765   DOI: 10.1093/geronj/34.3.328
4799  Razin S, Pfendt EA, Matsumura T, Hayflick L.  Comparison by autoradiography of macromolecular biosynthesis in "young" and "old" human diploid fibroblast cultures. A brief note.  Mech Ageing Dev  1977  6(5):379-84  PubMed ID: 895211   DOI: 10.1016/0047-6374(77)90039-2
4797  Masover GK, Namba M, Hayflick L.  Cytotoxic effect of a T-strain mycoplasma (Ureaplasma urealyticum) on cultured normal human cells (wi-38).  Exp Cell Res  1976  99(2):363-74  PubMed ID: 1269532   DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(76)90594-2
4798  Bradley MO, Hayflick L, Schimke RT.  Protein degradation in human fibroblasts (WI-38). Effects of aging, viral transformation, and amino acid analogs.  J Biol Chem  1976  251(12):3521-9  PubMed ID: 931997  
4796  Wright WE, Hayflick L.  The regulation of cellular aging by nuclear events in cultured normal human fibroblasts (WI-38).  Adv Exp Med Biol  1975  61:39-55  PubMed ID: 1180169   DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-9032-3_3
4794  Tomkins GA, Stanbridge EJ, Hayflick L.  Viral probes of aging in the human diploid cell strain WI-38.  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med  1974  146(2):385-90  PubMed ID: 4365308   DOI: 10.3181/00379727-146-38110
4795  Smith JR, Hayflick L.  Variation in the life-span of clones derived from human diploid cell strains.  J Cell Biol  1974  62(1):48-53  PubMed ID: 4407044   DOI: 10.1083/jcb.62.1.48
4793  Wright WE, Hayflick L.  Formation of anucleate and multinucleate cells in normal and SV 40 transformed WI-38 by cytochalasin B.  Exp Cell Res  1972  74(1):187-94  PubMed ID: 4342183   DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(72)90496-x
4792  Stanbridge E, Onen M, Perkins FT, Hayflick L.  Karyological and morphological characteristics of human diploid cell strain WI-38 infected with mycoplasmas.  Exp Cell Res  1969  57(2):397-410  PubMed ID: 5347639   DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(69)90166-9
375  HAYFLICK L.  THE LIMITED IN VITRO LIFETIME OF HUMAN DIPLOID CELL STRAINS.  Exp Cell Res  1965  37:614-36  PubMed ID: 14315085   DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(65)90211-9
454  HAYFLICK L, PLOTKIN SA, NORTON TW, KOPROWSKI H.  Preparation of poliovirus vaccines in a human fetal diploid cell strain.  Am J Hyg  1962  75:240-58  PubMed ID: 13905660   DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a120247
453  HAYFLICK L, MOORHEAD PS.  The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains.  Exp Cell Res  1961  25:585-621  PubMed ID: 13905658   DOI: 10.1016/0014-4827(61)90192-6

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User's Publication
20040  Nara T, Nakagawa Y, Tsuganezawa K, Yuki H, Sekimata K, Koyama H, Ogawa N, Honma T, Shirouzu M, Fukami T, Matsuo Y, Inaoka DK, Kita K, Tanaka A.  The ubiquinone synthesis pathway is a promising drug target for Chagas disease.  PLoS One  2021  16(2):e0243855  PubMed ID: 33539347   DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243855
20390  Fujita M, Sasada M, Eguchi M, Iyoda T, Okuyama S, Osawa T, Tsuzuranuki K, Sakamoto M, Hagihara Y, Matsumura M, Osada S, Kodama H, Higami Y, Fukai F.  Induction of cellular senescence in fibroblasts through β1-integrin activation by tenascin-C-derived peptide and its protumor effect.  Am J Cancer Res  2021  11(9):4364-4379  PubMed ID: 34659892  
17822  Fujita M, Ito-Fujita Y, Iyoda T, Sasada M, Okada Y, Ishibashi K, Osawa T, Kodama H, Fukai F, Suzuki H.  Peptide TNIIIA2 Derived from Tenascin-C Contributes to Malignant Progression in Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer via β1-Integrin Activation in Fibroblasts  Int J Mol Sci  2019  20(11):2752.  PubMed ID: 31195598   DOI: 10.3390/ijms20112752
4372  Ito T, Rakainsa SK, Nisa K, Morita H.  Three new abietane-type diterpenoids from the leaves of Indonesian Plectranthus scutellarioides.  Fitoterapia  2018  127:146-150  PubMed ID: 29447983   DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.02.013
18725  Doi T, Maniwa Y, Tanaka Y, Tane S, Hashimoto S, Ohno Y, Nishio W, Nishimura Y, Ohbayashi C, Okita Y, Hayashi Y, Yoshimura M.  MT1-MMP plays an important role in an invasive activity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell  Exp Mol Pathol  2011  90(1):91-6  PubMed ID: 20969861   DOI: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2010.10.008
18263  Kunoh T, Noda T, Koseki K, Sekigawa M, Takagi M, Shin-ya K, Goshima N, Iemura S, Natsume T, Wada S, Mukai Y, Ohta S, Sasaki R, Mizukami T.  A novel human dynactin-associated protein, dynAP, promotes activation of Akt, and ergosterol-related compounds induce dynAP-dependent apoptosis of human cancer cells  Mol Cancer Ther  2010  9(11):2934-42  PubMed ID: 20978158   DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0730
16603  Yuki T, Maniwa Y, Doi T, Okada K, Nishio W, Hayashi Y, Okita Y.  DNA damage sensor protein hRad9, a novel molecular target for lung cancer treatment  Oncol Rep  2008  20(5):1047-52  PubMed ID: 18949400  
3565  Takahashi K, Yoshida N, Murakami N, Kawata K, Ishizaki H, Tanaka-Okamoto M, Miyoshi J, Zinn AR, Shime H, Inoue N.  Dynamic regulation of p53 subnuclear localization and senescence by MORC3.  Mol Biol Cell  2007  18(5):1701-9  PubMed ID: 17332504   DOI: 10.1091/mbc.e06-08-0747
13731  Takata M, Maniwa Y, Doi T, Tanaka Y, Okada K, Nishio W, Ohbayashi C, Yoshimura M, Hayashi Y, Okita Y.  Double-layered collagen gel hemisphere for cell invasion assay: successful visualization and quantification of cell invasion activity  Cell Commun Adhes  2007  14(4):157-67  PubMed ID: 17957531   DOI: 10.1080/15419060701557859
8940  Hoshino K, Momiyama E, Yoshida K, Nishimura K, Sakai S, Toida T, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K.  Polyamine transport by mammalian cells and mitochondria: role of antizyme and glycosaminoglycans.  J. Biol. Chem.  2005  280:42801-8  PubMed ID: 16263714   DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M505445200
3228  Wu CA, Tsujita M, Hayashi M, Yokoyama S.  Probucol inactivates ABCA1 in the plasma membrane with respect to its mediation of apolipoprotein binding and high density lipoprotein assembly and to its proteolytic degradation.  J Biol Chem  2004  279(29):30168-74  PubMed ID: 15140889   DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M403765200
3231  Arakawa R, Hayashi M, Remaley AT, Brewer BH, Yamauchi Y, Yokoyama S.  Phosphorylation and stabilization of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 by synthetic amphiphilic helical peptides.  J Biol Chem  2004  279(8):6217-20  PubMed ID: 14701850   DOI: 10.1074/jbc.C300553200
2978  Takayama Y, Takahashi H, Mizumachi K, Takezawa T.  Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is required for lactoferrin-enhanced collagen gel contractile activity of human fibroblasts.  J Biol Chem  2003  278(24):22112-8  PubMed ID: 12672816   DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M300894200
3227  Yamauchi Y, Hayashi M, Abe-Dohmae S, Yokoyama S.  Apolipoprotein A-I activates protein kinase C alpha signaling to phosphorylate and stabilize ATP binding cassette transporter A1 for the high density lipoprotein assembly.  J Biol Chem  2003  278(48):47890-7  PubMed ID: 12952980   DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M306258200
2977  Takayama Y, Mizumachi K, Takezawa T.  The bovine lactoferrin region responsible for promoting the collagen gel contractile activity of human fibroblasts.  Biochem Biophys Res Commun  2002  299(5):813-7  PubMed ID: 12470651   DOI: 10.1016/s0006-291x(02)02748-1
2976  Takayama Y, Mizumachi K.  Effects of lactoferrin on collagen gel contractile activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation in human fibroblasts.  FEBS Lett  2001  508(1):111-6  PubMed ID: 11707279   DOI: 10.1016/s0014-5793(01)03041-1
6665  Takayama Y, Kitsunai K, Mizumachi K.  Factors in bovine colostrum that enhance the migration of human fibroblasts in type I collagen gels.  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem  2001  65(12):2776-9  PubMed ID: 11826977   DOI: 10.1271/bbb.65.2776
2075  Takano M, Kondo J, Yayama K, Okamoto H.  Expression of low-molecular-weight kininogen mRNA in human fibroblast WI38 cells.  Jpn J Pharmacol  1996  71(4):341-3  PubMed ID: 8886933   DOI: 10.1254/jjp.71.341

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