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Cell No. : Cell Name
RCB0702 : WI-38  update : 2020/06/12
CommentThe most famous normal human fibroblast. Obtained directly from L. Hayflick. Younger PDL than RCB704 at time of deposit.
Comment from the depositor
Terms and conditionsNo restriction, but the user needs depositor's approval to use for any commercial purpose.
Order Form Regarding MTA between user institutions and RIKEN BRC, there are two kinds of MTA, Category I and II, depending on the sort of user institutions and the purposes of use.Please use an appropriate MTA(to see).In case of Restriction "a" or "f", please contact RIKEN BRC( regarding any kind of for-profit use.
Basic information Depositor Hayflick, Leonard
Originator Hayflick, Leonard
Year of deposit 1991
Animal human < Mammals
Genus Homo
Species sapiens
Gender Female
Age at sampling 3 months gestation
Tissue embryo/fetus, lung
Classification normal
History overseas
Lifespan finite
Morphology fibroblast-like
deposit info
lot info
Medium Medium List
Culture type Adherent cells
Medium and additives MEM + 10% FBS
Antibiotics Free
Passage method 0.25% trypsin
Culture information Passage ratio 1 : 4 split
SC frequency Subculture : 2 times/week
Temperature 37 ℃
CO2 concentration 5 %
Freeze medium Medium + 10% DMSO
Freezing method Slow freezing
Mycoplasma (-)
STR(human) OK
Virus (HIV) (-)
Isozyme LD, NP
Chromosome mode 44-92(50) : 44(1),45(3),46(41),47(3),90(1),92(1)
deposit info
lot info
Reference information Reference 21
User's Publication 37

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4807  Olshansky SJ1, Hayflick L2.  The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity.  AIMS Public Health  2017  4(2):127-138  PubMed ID: 29546209
4808  Meredith Wadman  In 1962, Leonard Hayflick created a cell strain from an aborted fetus. More than 50 years later, WI-38 remains a crucial, but controversial, source of cells.  Nature  2013  2013-06-27 
12197  Meredith Wadman  Medical research: Cell division In 1962, Leonard Hayflick created a cell strain from an aborted fetus. More than 50 years later, WI-38 remains a crucial, but controversial, source of cells  Nature   2013  2013-06-27 
4806  Hayflick L.  Paying for tissue: the case of WI-38.  Science  2012  37(6100):1292  PubMed ID: 22984048
4805  Hayflick L.  A novel technique for transforming the theft of mortal human cells into praiseworthy federal policy.  Exp Gerontol  1998  33(1-2):191-207  PubMed ID: 9467730
4804  Hayflick L.  Antecedents of cell aging research.  Exp Gerontol  1989  24(5-6):355-65  PubMed ID: 2698813
4803  Hayflick L.  The cell biology of aging.  Clin Geriatr Med  1985  1(1):15-27  PubMed ID: 3913498
4802  Matsumura T, Pfendt EA, Zerrudo Z, Hayflick L.  Senescent human diploid cells (WI-38). Attempted induction of proliferation by infection with SV40 and by fusion with irradiated continuous cell lines.  Exp Cell Res  1980  125(2):453-7  PubMed ID: 6243571
4800  Matsumura T, Pfendt EA, Hayflick L.  DNA synthesis in the human diploid cell strain WI-38 during in vitro aging: an autoradiography study.  J Gerontol  1979  34(3):323-7  PubMed ID: 429764
4801  Matsumura T, Zerrudo Z, Hayflick L.  Senescent human diploid cells in culture: survival, DNA synthesis and morphology.  J Gerontol  1979  34(3):328-34  PubMed ID: 429765
4799  Razin S, Pfendt EA, Matsumura T, Hayflick L.  Comparison by autoradiography of macromolecular biosynthesis in "young" and "old" human diploid fibroblast cultures. A brief note.  Mech Ageing Dev  1977  6(5):379-84  PubMed ID: 895211
4797  Masover GK, Namba M, Hayflick L.  Cytotoxic effect of a T-strain mycoplasma (Ureaplasma urealyticum) on cultured normal human cells (wi-38).  Exp Cell Res  1976  99(2):363-74  PubMed ID: 1269532
4798  Bradley MO, Hayflick L, Schimke RT.  Protein degradation in human fibroblasts (WI-38). Effects of aging, viral transformation, and amino acid analogs.  J Biol Chem  1976  251(12):3521-9  PubMed ID: 931997
4796  Wright WE, Hayflick L.  The regulation of cellular aging by nuclear events in cultured normal human fibroblasts (WI-38).  Adv Exp Med Biol  1975  61:39-55  PubMed ID: 1180169
4794  Tomkins GA, Stanbridge EJ, Hayflick L.  Viral probes of aging in the human diploid cell strain WI-38.  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med  1974  146(2):385-90  PubMed ID: 4365308
4795  Smith JR, Hayflick L.  Variation in the life-span of clones derived from human diploid cell strains.  J Cell Biol  1974  62(1):48-53  PubMed ID: 4407044
4793  Wright WE, Hayflick L.  Formation of anucleate and multinucleate cells in normal and SV 40 transformed WI-38 by cytochalasin B.  Exp Cell Res  1972  74(1):187-94  PubMed ID: 4342183
4792  Stanbridge E, Onen M, Perkins FT, Hayflick L.  Karyological and morphological characteristics of human diploid cell strain WI-38 infected with mycoplasmas.  Exp Cell Res  1969  57(2):397-410  PubMed ID: 5347639
454  HAYFLICK L, PLOTKIN SA, NORTON TW, KOPROWSKI H.  Preparation of poliovirus vaccines in a human fetal diploid cell strain.  Am J Hyg  1962  75:240-58  PubMed ID: 13905660
453  HAYFLICK L, MOORHEAD PS.  The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains.  Exp Cell Res  1961  25:585-621  PubMed ID: 13905658

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User's Publication
9929  Keiko Tsuganezawa, Katsuhiko Sekimata, Yukari Nakagawa, Rei Utata, Kana Nakamura, Naoko Ogawa, Hiroo Koyama, Mikako Shirouzu, Takehiro Fukami, Kiyoshi Kita, AkikoTanaka  Identification of small molecule inhibitors of human COQ7  Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry  2020  28:115182 
11894  Kurisawa N, Yukawa M, Koshino H, Onodera T, Toda T, Kimura KI.  Kolavenic acid analog restores growth in HSET-overproducing fission yeast cells and multipolar mitosis in MDA-MB-231 human cells.  Bioorg. Med. Chem.  2020    PubMed ID: 31753800
11392  Nagano T, Yamao S, Terachi A, Yarimizu H, Itoh H, Katasho R, Kawai K, Nakashima A, Iwasaki T, Kikkawa U, Kamada S.  d-amino acid oxidase promotes cellular senescence via the production of reactive oxygen species.  Life Sci Alliance  2019    PubMed ID: 30659069
4061  Kobayashi A, Autsavapromporn N, Ahmad TAFT, Oikawa M, Homma-Takeda S, Furusawa Y, Wang J, Konishi T.   BYSTANDER WI-38 CELLS MODULATE DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAK REPAIR IN MICROBEAM-TARGETED A549 CELLS THROUGH GAP JUNCTION INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION.  Radiat Prot Dosimetry   2019    PubMed ID: 30535060
11877  Nozaki S, Nakatani Y, Mawatari A, Shibata N, Hume WE, Hayashinaka E, Wada Y, Doi H, Watanabe Y.  18F-FIMP: a LAT1-specific PET probe for discrimination between tumor tissue and inflammation.  Sci Rep  2019    PubMed ID: 31673030
10430  Abd El-Hafeez AA, Fujimura T, Kamei R, Hirakawa N, Baba K, Ono K, Kawamoto S.  A methoxyflavanone derivative from the Asian medicinal herb (Perilla frutescens) induces p53-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.  Cytotechnology  2018  70(3):899-912  PubMed ID: 28710570
11202  Shiozaki A, Ariyoshi Y, Iitaka D, Kosuga T, Shimizu H, Kudou M, Konishi T, Shoda K, Arita T, Konishi H, Komatsu S, Kubota T, Fujiwara H, Okamoto K, Kishimoto M, Konishi E, Marunaka Y, Ichikawa D, Otsuji E.  Functional analysis and clinical significance of sodium iodide symporter expression in gastric cancer.  Gastric Cancer  2018    PubMed ID: 30191346
4449  Teruaki Konishi, Alisa Kobayashi, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad, Jun Wang  Enhanced DNA double strand break repair triggered by microbeam irradiation induced cytoplasmic damage  Journal of Radiation and Cancer Research  2018  9,183-189 
4372  Ito T, Rakainsa SK, Nisa K, Morita H.  Three new abietane-type diterpenoids from the leaves of Indonesian Plectranthus scutellarioides.  Fitoterapia  2018  127:146-150  PubMed ID: 29447983
4373  Komori H, Goto Y, Kurayoshi K, Ozono E, Iwanaga R, Bradford AP, Araki K, Ohtani K.  Differential requirement for dimerization partner DP between E2F-dependent activation of tumor suppressor and growth-related genes.  Sci Rep  2018  8(1):8438  PubMed ID: 29855511
10126  Yoshida J, Uesugi S, Kawamura T, Kimura KI, Hu D, Xia S, Toyooka N, Ohnishi M, Kawashima H.  (4Z,15Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Glucose Production in H4IIE Cells.  Lipids  2017  52:295-301  PubMed ID: 28194557
10381  Kobayashi A, Tengku Ahmad TAF, Autsavapromporn N, Oikawa M, Homma-Takeda S, Furusawa Y, Wang J, Konishi T.  Enhanced DNA double-strand break repair of microbeam targeted A549 lung carcinoma cells by adjacent WI38 normal lung fibroblast cells via bi-directional signaling.  Mutat. Res.  2017  803-805:1-8  PubMed ID: 28689138
10037  Taku Chibazakura, Yuichi Asano  Defective Interaction Between p27 and Cyclin A-CDK Complex in Certain Human Cancer Cell Lines Revealed by Split YFP Assay in Living Cells  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem  2017  81(12):2360-2366  PubMed ID: 29098944
6039  Badr H, Kozai D, Sakaguchi R, Numata T, Mori Y.  Different Contribution of Redox-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels to Acetaminophen-Induced Death of Human Hepatoma Cell Line.  Front Pharmacol  2016  7:19  PubMed ID: 26903865
10168  Taku Chibazakura, Yui Toriyabe, Hiroshi Fujii, Kiwamu Takahashi, Mariko Kawakami, Haruna Kuwamura, Hazuki Haga, Shun-ichiro Ogura, Fuminori Abe, Motowo Nakajima, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Tohru Tanaka  5-Aminolevulinic Acid Enhances Cell Death Under Thermal Stress in Certain Cancer Cell Lines  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem   2015  79(3):422-31  PubMed ID: 25346276
10984  Hiroshi Kuwata, Makiko Yoshimura, Yuka Sasaki, Emiko Yoda, Yoshihito Nakatani, Ichiro Kudo, Shuntaro Hara  Role of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases in the regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism in interleukin 1β-stimulated rat fibroblasts  Biochim Biophys Acta  2014  1841(1):44-53  PubMed ID: 24095834
6577  Gu Lx, Johno H, Nakajima S, Yoshitomi T, Takahashi S, Kitamura M.  Intervention in genotoxic stress-induced senescence by cordycepin through activation of eIF2α and suppression of Sp1.  Toxicol Sci  2013  134(2):345-54  PubMed ID: 23690541
7643  Morimura R, Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Takeshita H, Tsujiura M, Nagata H, Konishi H, Shiozaki A, Ikoma H, Okamoto K, Ochiai T, Taniguchi H, Otsuji E.  Novel diagnostic value of circulating miR-18a in plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer.  Br. J. Cancer  2011  105:1733-40  PubMed ID: 22045190
7650  Matsuyama H, Suzuki HI, Nishimori H, Noguchi M, Yao T, Komatsu N, Mano H, Sugimoto K, Miyazono K.  miR-135b mediates NPM-ALK-driven oncogenicity and renders IL-17-producing immunophenotype to anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  Blood  2011  118:6881-92  PubMed ID: 22042699
4045  Shiba T, Maruyama T, Kurohane K, Iwasaki Y, Watanabe T, Imai Y.  TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation is a novel adjuvant effect mechanism in contact hypersensitivity.  J Neuroimmunol  2009  207(1-2):66-74  PubMed ID: 19135264
8715  Kobori M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Akimoto Y, Yukizaki C, Yoshida M.  Alpha-eleostearic acid and its dihydroxy derivative are major apoptosis-inducing components of bitter gourd.  J. Agric. Food Chem.  2008  56:10515-20  PubMed ID: 18959405
3579  Sudo K, Kanno M, Miharada K, Ogawa S, Hiroyama T, Saijo K, Nakamura Y.  Mesenchymal progenitors able to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and/or adipogenic cells in vitro are present in most primary fibroblast-like cell populations.  Stem Cells  2007  25(7):1610-7  PubMed ID: 17395773
3565  Takahashi K, Yoshida N, Murakami N, Kawata K, Ishizaki H, Tanaka-Okamoto M, Miyoshi J, Zinn AR, Shime H, Inoue N.  Dynamic regulation of p53 subnuclear localization and senescence by MORC3.  Mol Biol Cell  2007  18(5):1701-9  PubMed ID: 17332504
5896  Shimada H, Kuboshima M, Shiratori T, Nabeya Y, Takeuchi A, Takagi H, Nomura F, Takiguchi M, Ochiai T, Hiwasa T.  Serum anti-myomegalin antibodies in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  Int J Oncol.   2007  30(1):97-103  PubMed ID: 17143517
6297  Yamada K, Moriyama H, Yasuda H, Hara K, Maniwa Y, Hamada H, Yokono K, Nagata M.  Modification of the Rb-binding domain of replication-competent adenoviral vector enhances cytotoxicity against human esophageal cancers via NF-kappaB activity.  Hum Gene Ther  2007  18(5):389-400  PubMed ID: 17518613
8846  Kobori M, Yoshida M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Shinmoto H.  Ergosterol peroxide from an edible mushroom suppresses inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages and growth of HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.  Br. J. Pharmacol.  2006  150:209-19  PubMed ID: 17160010
2885  Seo E, Abei M, Wakayama M, Fukuda K, Ugai H, Murata T, Todoroki T, Matsuzaki Y, Tanaka N, Hamada H, Yokoyama KK.  Effective gene therapy of biliary tract cancers by a conditionally replicative adenovirus expressing uracil phosphoribosyltransferase: significance of timing of 5-fluorouracil administration.  Cancer Res  2005  65(2):546-52  PubMed ID: 15695398
3228  Wu CA, Tsujita M, Hayashi M, Yokoyama S.  Probucol inactivates ABCA1 in the plasma membrane with respect to its mediation of apolipoprotein binding and high density lipoprotein assembly and to its proteolytic degradation.  J Biol Chem  2004  279(29):30168-74  PubMed ID: 15140889
3231  Arakawa R, Hayashi M, Remaley AT, Brewer BH, Yamauchi Y, Yokoyama S.  Phosphorylation and stabilization of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 by synthetic amphiphilic helical peptides.  J Biol Chem  2004  279(8):6217-20  PubMed ID: 14701850
2978  Takayama Y, Takahashi H, Mizumachi K, Takezawa T.  Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is required for lactoferrin-enhanced collagen gel contractile activity of human fibroblasts.  J Biol Chem  2003  278(24):22112-8  PubMed ID: 12672816
3227  Yamauchi Y, Hayashi M, Abe-Dohmae S, Yokoyama S.  Apolipoprotein A-I activates protein kinase C alpha signaling to phosphorylate and stabilize ATP binding cassette transporter A1 for the high density lipoprotein assembly.  J Biol Chem  2003  278(48):47890-7  PubMed ID: 12952980
2977  Takayama Y, Mizumachi K, Takezawa T.  The bovine lactoferrin region responsible for promoting the collagen gel contractile activity of human fibroblasts.  Biochem Biophys Res Commun  2002  299(5):813-7  PubMed ID: 12470651
2976  Takayama Y, Mizumachi K.  Effects of lactoferrin on collagen gel contractile activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation in human fibroblasts.  FEBS Lett  2001  508(1):111-6  PubMed ID: 11707279
6665  Takayama Y, Kitsunai K, Mizumachi K.  Factors in bovine colostrum that enhance the migration of human fibroblasts in type I collagen gels.  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem  2001  65(12):2776-9  PubMed ID: 11826977
3978  Tanioka T, Nakatani Y, Semmyo N, Murakami M, Kudo I.  Molecular identification of cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase that is functionally coupled with cyclooxygenase-1 in immediate prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis.  J Biol Chem  2000  275(42):32775-82  PubMed ID: 10922363
5537  Takaoka AS, Yamada T, Gotoh M, Kanai Y, Imai K, Hirohashi S.  Cloning and characterization of the human beta4-integrin gene promoter and enhancers.  J Biol Chem  1998  273(50):33848-55  PubMed ID: 9837976
2075  Takano M, Kondo J, Yayama K, Okamoto H.  Expression of low-molecular-weight kininogen mRNA in human fibroblast WI38 cells.  Jpn J Pharmacol  1996  71(4):341-3  PubMed ID: 8886933

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