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RCB0702 : WI-38  update : 2018/07/06
CommentThe most famous normal human fibroblast. Obtained directly from L. Hayflick. Younger PDL than RCB704 at time of deposit.
Comment from the depositor
Terms and conditionsNo restriction, but the user needs depositor's approval to use for any commercial purpose.
Order Form Regarding MTA between user institutions and RIKEN BRC, there are two kinds of MTA, Category I and II, depending on the sort of user institutions and the purposes of use.Please use an appropriate MTA(to see).In case of Restriction "a" or "f", please contact RIKEN BRC( regarding any kind of for-profit use.
Basic information Depositor Hayflick, Leonard
Originator Hayflick, Leonard
Year of deposit 1991
Animal human < Mammals
Genus Homo
Species sapiens
Gender Female
Age at sampling 3 months gestation
Tissue embryo/fetus, lung
Classification normal
History overseas
Lifespan finite
Morphology fibroblast-like
deposit info
lot info
Medium Medium List
Culture type Adherent cells
Medium and additives MEM + 10% FBS
Antibiotics Free
Passage method 0.25% trypsin
Culture information Passage ratio 1 : 4 split
SC frequency Subculture : 2 times/week
Temperature 37 ℃
CO2 concentration 5 %
Freeze medium Medium + 10% DMSO
Freezing method Slow freezing
Mycoplasma (-)
STR (human) OK
Virus (HIV) (-)
Isozyme LD, NP
Chromosome mode 44-92(50) : 44(1),45(3),46(41),47(3),90(1),92(1)
deposit info
lot info
Reference information Reference 20
User's Publication 32

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453  The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains.  HAYFLICK L, MOORHEAD PS.  Exp Cell Res  1961  25:585-621  PubMed ID: 13905658
454  Preparation of poliovirus vaccines in a human fetal diploid cell strain.  HAYFLICK L, PLOTKIN SA, NORTON TW, KOPROWSKI H.  Am J Hyg  1962  75:240-58  PubMed ID: 13905660
4792  Karyological and morphological characteristics of human diploid cell strain WI-38 infected with mycoplasmas.  Stanbridge E, Onen M, Perkins FT, Hayflick L.  Exp Cell Res  1969  57(2):397-410  PubMed ID: 5347639
4793  Formation of anucleate and multinucleate cells in normal and SV 40 transformed WI-38 by cytochalasin B.  Wright WE, Hayflick L.  Exp Cell Res  1972  74(1):187-94  PubMed ID: 4342183
4794  Viral probes of aging in the human diploid cell strain WI-38.  Tomkins GA, Stanbridge EJ, Hayflick L.  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med  1974  146(2):385-90  PubMed ID: 4365308
4795  Variation in the life-span of clones derived from human diploid cell strains.  Smith JR, Hayflick L.  J Cell Biol  1974  62(1):48-53  PubMed ID: 4407044
4796  The regulation of cellular aging by nuclear events in cultured normal human fibroblasts (WI-38).  Wright WE, Hayflick L.  Adv Exp Med Biol  1975  61:39-55  PubMed ID: 1180169
4797  Cytotoxic effect of a T-strain mycoplasma (Ureaplasma urealyticum) on cultured normal human cells (wi-38).  Masover GK, Namba M, Hayflick L.  Exp Cell Res  1976  99(2):363-74  PubMed ID: 1269532
4798  Protein degradation in human fibroblasts (WI-38). Effects of aging, viral transformation, and amino acid analogs.  Bradley MO, Hayflick L, Schimke RT.  J Biol Chem  1976  251(12):3521-9  PubMed ID: 931997
4799  Comparison by autoradiography of macromolecular biosynthesis in "young" and "old" human diploid fibroblast cultures. A brief note.  Razin S, Pfendt EA, Matsumura T, Hayflick L.  Mech Ageing Dev  1977  6(5):379-84  PubMed ID: 895211
4800  DNA synthesis in the human diploid cell strain WI-38 during in vitro aging: an autoradiography study.  Matsumura T, Pfendt EA, Hayflick L.  J Gerontol  1979  34(3):323-7  PubMed ID: 429764
4801  Senescent human diploid cells in culture: survival, DNA synthesis and morphology.  Matsumura T, Zerrudo Z, Hayflick L.  J Gerontol  1979  34(3):328-34  PubMed ID: 429765
4802  Senescent human diploid cells (WI-38). Attempted induction of proliferation by infection with SV40 and by fusion with irradiated continuous cell lines.  Matsumura T, Pfendt EA, Zerrudo Z, Hayflick L.  Exp Cell Res  1980  125(2):453-7  PubMed ID: 6243571
4803  The cell biology of aging.  Hayflick L.  Clin Geriatr Med  1985  1(1):15-27  PubMed ID: 3913498
4804  Antecedents of cell aging research.  Hayflick L.  Exp Gerontol  1989  24(5-6):355-65  PubMed ID: 2698813
4805  A novel technique for transforming the theft of mortal human cells into praiseworthy federal policy.  Hayflick L.  Exp Gerontol  1998  33(1-2):191-207  PubMed ID: 9467730
4806  Paying for tissue: the case of WI-38.  Hayflick L.  Science  2012  37(6100):1292  PubMed ID: 22984048
4807  The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity.  Olshansky SJ1, Hayflick L2.  AIMS Public Health  2017  4(2):127-138  PubMed ID: 29546209
4808  In 1962, Leonard Hayflick created a cell strain from an aborted fetus. More than 50 years later, WI-38 remains a crucial, but controversial, source of cells.  Meredith Wadman  Nature  2013  2013-06-27 

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User's Publication
7643  Novel diagnostic value of circulating miR-18a in plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer.  Morimura R, Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, Takeshita H, Tsujiura M, Nagata H, Konishi H, Shiozaki A, Ikoma H, Okamoto K, Ochiai T, Taniguchi H, Otsuji E.  Br. J. Cancer  2011  105:1733-40  PubMed ID: 22045190
7650  miR-135b mediates NPM-ALK-driven oncogenicity and renders IL-17-producing immunophenotype to anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  Matsuyama H, Suzuki HI, Nishimori H, Noguchi M, Yao T, Komatsu N, Mano H, Sugimoto K, Miyazono K.  Blood  2011  118:6881-92  PubMed ID: 22042699
8715  Alpha-eleostearic acid and its dihydroxy derivative are major apoptosis-inducing components of bitter gourd.  Kobori M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Akimoto Y, Yukizaki C, Yoshida M.  J. Agric. Food Chem.  2008  56:10515-20  PubMed ID: 18959405
8846  Ergosterol peroxide from an edible mushroom suppresses inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages and growth of HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.  Kobori M, Yoshida M, Ohnishi-Kameyama M, Shinmoto H.  Br. J. Pharmacol.  2006  150:209-19  PubMed ID: 17160010
10126  (4Z,15Z)-Octadecadienoic Acid Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Glucose Production in H4IIE Cells.  Yoshida J, Uesugi S, Kawamura T, Kimura KI, Hu D, Xia S, Toyooka N, Ohnishi M, Kawashima H.  Lipids  2017  52:295-301  PubMed ID: 28194557
10381  Enhanced DNA double-strand break repair of microbeam targeted A549 lung carcinoma cells by adjacent WI38 normal lung fibroblast cells via bi-directional signaling.  Kobayashi A, Tengku Ahmad TAF, Autsavapromporn N, Oikawa M, Homma-Takeda S, Furusawa Y, Wang J, Konishi T.  Mutat. Res.  2017  803-805:1-8  PubMed ID: 28689138
10430  A methoxyflavanone derivative from the Asian medicinal herb (Perilla frutescens) induces p53-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.  Abd El-Hafeez AA, Fujimura T, Kamei R, Hirakawa N, Baba K, Ono K, Kawamoto S.  Cytotechnology  2018  70(3):899-912  PubMed ID: 28710570
11202  Functional analysis and clinical significance of sodium iodide symporter expression in gastric cancer.  Shiozaki A, Ariyoshi Y, Iitaka D, Kosuga T, Shimizu H, Kudou M, Konishi T, Shoda K, Arita T, Konishi H, Komatsu S, Kubota T, Fujiwara H, Okamoto K, Kishimoto M, Konishi E, Marunaka Y, Ichikawa D, Otsuji E.  Gastric Cancer  2018    PubMed ID: 30191346
11392  d-amino acid oxidase promotes cellular senescence via the production of reactive oxygen species.  Nagano T, Yamao S, Terachi A, Yarimizu H, Itoh H, Katasho R, Kawai K, Nakashima A, Iwasaki T, Kikkawa U, Kamada S.  Life Sci Alliance  2019    PubMed ID: 30659069
4061  BYSTANDER WI-38 CELLS MODULATE DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAK REPAIR IN MICROBEAM-TARGETED A549 CELLS THROUGH GAP JUNCTION INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION.  Kobayashi A, Autsavapromporn N, Ahmad TAFT, Oikawa M, Homma-Takeda S, Furusawa Y, Wang J, Konishi T.   Radiat Prot Dosimetry   2019    PubMed ID: 30535060
4449  Enhanced DNA double strand break repair triggered by microbeam irradiation induced cytoplasmic damage  Teruaki Konishi, Alisa Kobayashi, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku Ahmad, Jun Wang  Journal of Radiation and Cancer Research  2018  9,183-189 
4372  Three new abietane-type diterpenoids from the leaves of Indonesian Plectranthus scutellarioides.  Ito T, Rakainsa SK, Nisa K, Morita H.  Fitoterapia  2018  127:146-150  PubMed ID: 29447983
4373  Differential requirement for dimerization partner DP between E2F-dependent activation of tumor suppressor and growth-related genes.  Komori H, Goto Y, Kurayoshi K, Ozono E, Iwanaga R, Bradford AP, Araki K, Ohtani K.  Sci Rep  2018  8(1):8438  PubMed ID: 29855511
2075  Expression of low-molecular-weight kininogen mRNA in human fibroblast WI38 cells.  Takano M, Kondo J, Yayama K, Okamoto H.  Jpn J Pharmacol  1996  71(4):341-3  PubMed ID: 8886933
2885  Effective gene therapy of biliary tract cancers by a conditionally replicative adenovirus expressing uracil phosphoribosyltransferase: significance of timing of 5-fluorouracil administration.  Seo E, Abei M, Wakayama M, Fukuda K, Ugai H, Murata T, Todoroki T, Matsuzaki Y, Tanaka N, Hamada H, Yokoyama KK.  Cancer Res  2005  65(2):546-52  PubMed ID: 15695398
2976  Effects of lactoferrin on collagen gel contractile activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation in human fibroblasts.  Takayama Y, Mizumachi K.  FEBS Lett  2001  508(1):111-6  PubMed ID: 11707279
2977  The bovine lactoferrin region responsible for promoting the collagen gel contractile activity of human fibroblasts.  Takayama Y, Mizumachi K, Takezawa T.  Biochem Biophys Res Commun  2002  299(5):813-7  PubMed ID: 12470651
2978  Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is required for lactoferrin-enhanced collagen gel contractile activity of human fibroblasts.  Takayama Y, Takahashi H, Mizumachi K, Takezawa T.  J Biol Chem  2003  278(24):22112-8  PubMed ID: 12672816
3227  Apolipoprotein A-I activates protein kinase C alpha signaling to phosphorylate and stabilize ATP binding cassette transporter A1 for the high density lipoprotein assembly.  Yamauchi Y, Hayashi M, Abe-Dohmae S, Yokoyama S.  J Biol Chem  2003  278(48):47890-7  PubMed ID: 12952980
3228  Probucol inactivates ABCA1 in the plasma membrane with respect to its mediation of apolipoprotein binding and high density lipoprotein assembly and to its proteolytic degradation.  Wu CA, Tsujita M, Hayashi M, Yokoyama S.  J Biol Chem  2004  279(29):30168-74  PubMed ID: 15140889
3231  Phosphorylation and stabilization of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 by synthetic amphiphilic helical peptides.  Arakawa R, Hayashi M, Remaley AT, Brewer BH, Yamauchi Y, Yokoyama S.  J Biol Chem  2004  279(8):6217-20  PubMed ID: 14701850
3579  Mesenchymal progenitors able to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and/or adipogenic cells in vitro are present in most primary fibroblast-like cell populations.  Sudo K, Kanno M, Miharada K, Ogawa S, Hiroyama T, Saijo K, Nakamura Y.  Stem Cells  2007  25(7):1610-7  PubMed ID: 17395773
3565  Dynamic regulation of p53 subnuclear localization and senescence by MORC3.  Takahashi K, Yoshida N, Murakami N, Kawata K, Ishizaki H, Tanaka-Okamoto M, Miyoshi J, Zinn AR, Shime H, Inoue N.  Mol Biol Cell  2007  18(5):1701-9  PubMed ID: 17332504
5537  Cloning and characterization of the human beta4-integrin gene promoter and enhancers.  Takaoka AS, Yamada T, Gotoh M, Kanai Y, Imai K, Hirohashi S.  J Biol Chem  1998  273(50):33848-55  PubMed ID: 9837976
3978  Molecular identification of cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase that is functionally coupled with cyclooxygenase-1 in immediate prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis.  Tanioka T, Nakatani Y, Semmyo N, Murakami M, Kudo I.  J Biol Chem  2000  275(42):32775-82  PubMed ID: 10922363
5896  Serum anti-myomegalin antibodies in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.  Shimada H, Kuboshima M, Shiratori T, Nabeya Y, Takeuchi A, Takagi H, Nomura F, Takiguchi M, Ochiai T, Hiwasa T.  Int J Oncol.   2007  30(1):97-103  PubMed ID: 17143517
6039  Different Contribution of Redox-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels to Acetaminophen-Induced Death of Human Hepatoma Cell Line.  Badr H, Kozai D, Sakaguchi R, Numata T, Mori Y.  Front Pharmacol  2016  7:19  PubMed ID: 26903865
6297  Modification of the Rb-binding domain of replication-competent adenoviral vector enhances cytotoxicity against human esophageal cancers via NF-kappaB activity.  Yamada K, Moriyama H, Yasuda H, Hara K, Maniwa Y, Hamada H, Yokono K, Nagata M.  Hum Gene Ther  2007  18(5):389-400  PubMed ID: 17518613
4045  TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation is a novel adjuvant effect mechanism in contact hypersensitivity.  Shiba T, Maruyama T, Kurohane K, Iwasaki Y, Watanabe T, Imai Y.  J Neuroimmunol  2009  207(1-2):66-74  PubMed ID: 19135264
11877  18F-FIMP: a LAT1-specific PET probe for discrimination between tumor tissue and inflammation.  Nozaki S, Nakatani Y, Mawatari A, Shibata N, Hume WE, Hayashinaka E, Wada Y, Doi H, Watanabe Y.  Sci Rep  2019    PubMed ID: 31673030
6577  Intervention in genotoxic stress-induced senescence by cordycepin through activation of eIF2α and suppression of Sp1.  Gu Lx, Johno H, Nakajima S, Yoshitomi T, Takahashi S, Kitamura M.  Toxicol Sci  2013  134(2):345-54  PubMed ID: 23690541
6665  Factors in bovine colostrum that enhance the migration of human fibroblasts in type I collagen gels.  Takayama Y, Kitsunai K, Mizumachi K.  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem  2001  65(12):2776-9  PubMed ID: 11826977

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